LDK
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  • Offer Profile
  • Established in 2005 in China, LDK Solar is the world's largest producer of solar wafers in terms of capacity and a leading high-purity polysilicon and solar module manufacturer.

    LDK Solar manufactures and markets multicrystalline and monocrystalline wafers to manufacturers of solar cells and modules. The company also markets solar materials, which include ingots, and chemicals (used to produce Polysilicon and solar wafers) as well as provides wafer processing services.

    In 2009, LDK Solar expanded the scope of its vertical integration strategy to include sales of solar modules to developers, distributors and system integrators. LDK Solar acquired the crystalline module manufacturing plant of Best Solar in February 2010 to bring the manufacturing capability in-house.
     
Product Portfolio
  • Solar Module

  • As one of the fastest growing solar module providers in the world, LDK Solar has an established track record of delivering consistently high quality solar modules to our valued customers. We take pride in providing technologically advanced and reliable solar modules and our product line is led by our passion to design and deliver energy solutions that not only keep pace with global needs, but anticipate them as well. We have three module manufacturing facilities located in Nanchang City in Jiangxi province , Suzhou City in Jiangsu province and Hefei City in Anhui province in China.
      • Monocrystalline Modules

      • At LDK Solar, we produce high-quality and high-efficiency monocrystalline photovoltaic modules. The monocrystalline power series of solar modules range from 160watts to 250watts in power output. Our solar modules are clean, environmentally friendly and built to the specifications of our customers and end-users. Adapting our product range to meet market demands allows us to provide our customers with a broader range of on-grid and off-grid solutions for residential, commercial, industrial and utility scale applications around the world.

        Our PV modules are formed by interconnecting multiple PV cells in the desired electrical configuration through taping and stringing. The interconnected cells are laid out and laminated in a vacuum and then go through a curing, or heating process. Through these processes, our PV modules are sealed and become weatherproof and are able to withstand high levels of ultraviolet radiation and moisture. Assembled PV modules are packed in a protective aluminum frame prior to testing.
          • Polycrystalline

          • At LDK Solar, we produce high-quality and high-efficiency multicrystalline photovoltaic modules. The multicrystalline power series of solar modules range from 160watts to 280watts in power output. Our solar modules are clean, environmentally friendly and built to our customers' and end-users' specifications. Adapting our product range to meet market demands allows us to provide our customers with a broader range of on-grid and off-grid solutions for residential, commercial, industrial and utility scale applications around the world.

            Our PV modules are formed by interconnecting multiple PV cells in the desired electrical configuration through taping and stringing. The interconnected cells are laid out and laminated in a vacuum and then go through a curing, or heating process. Through these processes, our PV modules are sealed and become weatherproof and are able to withstand high levels of ultraviolet radiation and moisture. Assembled PV modules are packed in a protective aluminum frame prior to testing.
              • Solar Systems

              • LDK Solar has reached our goal to become the most vertically integrated PV company by also providing system integration. With proven experience, know-how and passion to help our clients, LDK Solar can provide engineering and design support, ensure the quality of the products and monitor the efficiency of the system.
                We can also offer financing solutions, thanks to a strategic agreement with China Development Bank that will provide up to $ 8.9 billion of credit facilities to LDK Solar over a five-year period.
                  • Residential solar kits

                      • As the photovoltaic sector moves towards grid parity economies must be made along the entire value chain. That’s why a large integrated company like LDK now offers a complete kit for residential, agricultural and small commercial installations.

                        LDK offers both an in roof, architectural solution for new build and BIPV applications and a high quality on roof solution. LDK’s in roof solution fulfills the French criteria of integration of CEIAB (Comité d’Evaluation l’Intégration au Bâti).
                        LDK will provide attractive full-black laminates and full-black modules to ensure an attractive look to our installations.
                        Every kit consists of the following components:
                        • High performance full black monocrystalline modules
                        • High quality LDK Inverter for standard configurations
                        • LDK mounting system for both BIPV or on roof applications
                        • DC cable set
                        • All other accessories: data logger and display, system documentation

                        3 Types available!

                        Nominal Output (Pmax) [W]: 185 - 190
                        Voltage at Pmax (Vmp) [V]: 36.9 - 37.7
                        Current at Pmax (Imp) [A]: 5.02 - 5.05

                         
                      • Projects

                          • Site: Altamura (BA)

                          • Country: Italy
                            Site: Altamura (BA)
                            Peak power: 1 MW
                            Technology: Ground mono axis
                            Modules: LDK 220W
                            Months since connection: 12
                            Production : 1.700.000 kWh
                            PR: 81% (+ 6% compared to JRC)
                          • Site: Palo del Colle (BA)

                          • Country: Italy
                            Site: Palo del Colle (BA)
                            Peak power: 1 MW
                            Technology: Ground fix
                            Modules: LDK 220W
                            Months since connection: 4
                            Production : 372.492 kWh
                            PR: 86% (+ 11% compared to JRC)
                          • Site: Roccaforzata (TA)

                          • Country: Italy
                            Site: Roccaforzata (TA)
                            Peak power: 1 MW
                            Technology: Ground fix
                            Modules: LDK 220W
                            Months since connection: 7
                            Production : 695.523 kWh
                            PR: 83% (+8% compared to JRC)
                          • Site: Puglia

                          • Country: Italy
                            Site: Puglia
                            Peak power: 3 MW
                            Technology: Ground mono axis
                            Modules: LDK 220W
                          • Site: San Gregorio nelle Alpi (BL)

                          • Country: Italy
                            Site: San Gregorio nelle Alpi (BL)
                            Peak power: 857 kW
                            Technology: Greenhouses and parking
                            Modules: LDK 240W
                          • Site: Loria (TV)

                          • Country: Italy
                            Site: Loria (TV)
                            Peak power: 309 kW
                            Technology: Greenhouses
                            Modules: LDK 230W
                        • Cells

                        • Manufacturing in-house PV cells and increasing the efficiency of solar cells is one of the most effective ways to reduce the cost of PV modules. We are currently in the process of establishing our cell manufacturing lines to produce our own cells as well as working on developing new high-efficiency monocrystalline and multicrystalline cell technology. Manufacturing our own cells in-house will reduce the cost of modules, increase quality, and ensure a stable supply of cells.
                          A PV cell is a device made from polysilicon wafers that converts sunlight into electricity by a process known as the photovoltaic effect. The conversion efficiency of a PV cell is the ratio of electrical energy produced by the cell to the energy from sunlight that reaches the cell. The conversion efficiency of PV cells is determined to a large extent by the quality of wafers used to produce the PV cells, which in turn is determined by the quality of polysilicon used in the ingot casting process.

                          Key Information: Research & Development Targets
                          Multicrystalline Cell Efficiency: Currently 16.29%, In 5 Years 19-21%
                          Monocrystalline Cell Efficiency: Currently 17.28%, In 5 Years 21.23%
                              • Monocrystalline

                              • PV cell manufacturing begins with the ultrasonic cleaning of silicon wafers followed by the chemical treatment of the wafer surface, which reduces the PV cell's reflection of sunlight. Through a thermal process, or a diffusion process, we then introduce certain impurities into the silicon wafer and form an electrical field within the PV cell. Then an anti-reflection coating is applied to the front surface of the PV cell in order to enhance it's absorption of sunlight. We screen print negative and positive metal contacts, or electrons, onto the front and back surfaces of the PV cell, with the front contact in a grid pattern to allow sunlight to be absorbed. Silicon and metal electrodes are then connected through an electrode firing process in a conveyor belt furnace at high temperature. We complete the manufacturing of the PV cells by testing and sorting.
                              • Multicrystalline

                              • We commenced production of multicrystalline cells in August 2010. PV cell manufacturing begins with the ultrasonic cleaning of silicon wafers followed by the chemical treatment of the wafer surface, which reduces the PV cell's reflection of sunlight. Through a thermal process, or a diffusion process, we then introduce certain impurities into the silicon wafer and form an electrical field within the PV cell. Then an anti-reflection coating is applied to the front surface of the PV cell in order to enhance it's absorption of sunlight. We screen print negative and positive metal contacts, or electrons, onto the front and back surfaces of the PV cell, with the front contact in a grid pattern to allow sunlight to be absorbed. Silicon and metal electrodes are then connected through an electrode firing process in a conveyor belt furnace at high temperature. We complete the manufacturing of the PV cells by testing and sorting.
                          • Wafer

                          • We are the world's largest manufacturer of solar wafers in terms of capacity, according to Solarbuzz. We have established a large-scale wafer manufacturing facility with an annual manufacturing capacity of approximately 3.0GW as of December 31st, 2010. Our leading position has enabled us to form strong strategic relationships with our customers, including some key cell and module players in the industry. Such strategic relationships have helped us gain feedback to improve our manufacturing process and our technology and enter into new long-term contracts. Leveraging our scale and market position, we are able to procure advanced production equipment on favorable terms.
                            A thin slice of crystalline silicon is used as the key component in a solar wafer. We have developed processing technologies to reduce our production costs at each step of the production process, which include recycling more polysilicon, producing bigger ingots, increasing wafer size, reducing wafer thickness, recovering slurry and increasing production yield.
                                • Monocrystalline

                                • We commenced production of mono crystalline wafers in March 2009. We have developed processing technologies to reduce our production costs at each step of the production process, which include recycling more poly silicon, producing bigger ingots, increasing wafer size, reducing wafer thickness, recovering slurry and increasing production yield.
                                  We utilize large capacity, state-of-the-art mono crystalline pulling equipment enabling LDK Solar to produce to the highest industry quality standards and in a cost effective manner. After rigorous inspection criteria, the mono crystalline ingots are squared by wire squaring machines. Through high-precision cutting techniques, the squared ingots are then sliced into wafers by wire saws using steel wires and slurry composed of Silicon Carbide and Glycol. After the wafers are cut, they are cleaned and dried with a proprietary cleaning process and inspected to ensure adherence to strict customer bulk and surface quality requirements. Finally, the wafers are inspected before they are packed in boxes and shipped to customers or our cell facilities.




                                  Available in 2 sizes:
                                  Side:
                                  156.0  ±  0.5 mm
                                  Diameter: 200.0  ±  0.5 mm

                                  Side: 125.0  ±  0.5 mm
                                  Diameter: 150.0  ±  0.5 mm; 165.0  ±  0.5 mm; 200.0  ±  0.5 mm
                                • Multicrystalline

                                • We commenced production of multi crystalline ingots in May 2006. We have developed processing technologies to reduce our production costs at each step of the production process, which include recycling more poly silicon, producing bigger ingots, increasing wafer size, reducing wafer thickness, recovering slurry and increasing production yield.
                                  We utilize large capacity, up to 800Kg charge size, state-of-the-art multi crystalline furnace equipment enabling LDK Solar to produce the highest industry quality standards in a cost effective manner. After rigorous inspection criteria, the multi crystalline ingots are squared by wire squaring machines. Through high-precision cutting techniques, the squared ingots are then sliced into wafers by wire saws using steel wires and slurry composed of silicon carbide and glycol. After the wafers are cut, they are cleaned and dried with a proprietary cleaning process and inspected to ensure adherence to strict customer bulk and surface quality requirements. Finally, the wafers are inspected before they are packed in boxes and shipped to customers or our cell facilities. Available in 2 sizes:
                                  Side: 156.0  ±  0.5 mm and 125.0  ±  0.5 mm
                            • Ingot

                            • At LDK Solar, we produce large monocrystalline and multicrystalline ingots. This innovation enables us to increase our yield of ingots and increase the utilization rates of our facilities thus reducing costs by achieving economies of scale. Larger ingots will increase throughput production efficiencies by reducing manufacturing bottlenecks. For example, LDK Solar produced the world's first and largest multicrystalline ingot weighing 800kg. Our ingot manufacturing facilities are located in Xinyu City in Jiangxi province, China.
                              An ingot is a semiconductor material (e.g. Silicon) that is melted and cast into a shape suitable for further processing. We use our high-purity polysilicon as well as purchased and recycled polysilicon to manufacture our ingots. We test and categorize recycled silicon raw materials based on their technical properties. These recycled silicon raw materials then undergo mechanical grinding and chemical cleaning before they are mixed using our proprietary formula. Our ability to mix the materials in the right proportion is critical to the production of high-quality silicon ingots.
                                  • Monocrystalline

                                  • We commenced production of monocrystalline ingots in March 2009. To produce monocrystalline ingots, we place polysilicon into a quartz crucible in a furnace, where the polysilicon is melted. Then, a thin crystal seed is dipped into the molten silicon to determine the crystal orientation. The seed is rotated and then slowly extracted from the molten silicon to form a single crystal as the molten silicon and crucible cool. Once the single crystals have been grown to pre-determined specifications, they are surface-ground to produce ingots. The uniform properties of a single crystal promote the conductivity of electrons, thus yielding higher conversion efficiencies. We have developed manufacturing technologies that enable us to increase our yield of ingots, reduce electricity costs and enhance the utilization rate of furnaces and consumables, such as crucibles.
                                  • Multicrystalline

                                  • We commenced production of multicrystalline ingots in May 2006. To produce multicrystalline ingots, the molten polysilicon is changed into a block through a casting process in the multicrystalline furnaces. Crystallization starts by gradually cooling the crucibles in order to create multicrystalline ingot blocks. The resulting ingot blocks consist of multiple smaller crystals as opposed to the single crystal of a monocrystalline ingot. The output of a multicrystalline furnace is higher than that of a monocrystalline furnace. We have developed manufacturing technologies that enable us to increase our yield of ingots, reduce electricity costs and enhance the utilization rate of furnaces and consumables, such as crucibles.
                              • Silicon

                              • LDK Solar`s Ma Hong Polysilicon Plant is one of the largest polysilicon plant sites in the world currently with ~22,000MTA planned polysilicon capacity.
                                Polysilicon is the largest cost component for manufacturing wafers. Polysilicon production is also the most complicated step in the solar value chain when compared to wafer, cell or module manufacturing, system integration and project development. By establishing our own in-house polysilicon capabilities, we are able to reduce material costs, maintain quality control, ensure availability and reduce manufacturing cycle time, thus driving efficiency into our production process. We also produce most of the process chemicals and gases (such as TCS, HCl and Hydrogen) which are required to make polysilicon.
                                    • Production

                                    • Production Technologies
                                      We use metallurgical silicon as a raw material to produce TCS, which is then used to produce polysilicon. This technology enables a high degree of hydrogen, HCI, TCS and STC to be recycled and re-used during the production process, thereby reducing waste output and lowering raw material cost. Our continuous closed-loop process is designed to increase production capacity per reactor, while reducing overall energy consumption and capital investment for a given level of production. Our advanced distributed control system, or DCS, improves production capacity and safety while reducing human-resource related operating expense. Our production process, including production, cleaning, packaging and transportation, conforms to relevant international standards and our comprehensive waste management system is compliant with national environmental protection standards.

                                      Production Process
                                      We use modified Siemens process for our polysilicon production. Our polysilicon production process starts with mixing HCl with a bed of silicon powder in a reactor which produces TCS. TCS is then purified through distillation and the by-product STC is converted back into TCS for re-use as a production input, and hence recycled in what is known as a closed-loop process. Next, high-purity silicon rods are exposed to purified TCS gas in a hydrogen environment at 1,080°C, allowing TCS gas to decompose and deposit additional silicon onto the rods. When the rods eventually grow to desired diameters, they are removed from the reactor and moved to a clean area for further processing. Finally, the rods are broken into chunks, impurities are segregated and the ultra pure polysilicon chunks are then used for our wafer production.
                                • Innovation

                                • LDK Photovoltaic Technology Research Institute (R&D center) was founded in February 2007 with a lot of senior specialists in PV industry and a lively R&D team working for it. Till now R&D center is equipped with about more than 100 professional R&D technicians, including more than 10 foreign experts and doctors.
                                  The technology center is focus on researching of new technology and process, organizing R&D team to do technical research for resolving technology problems occurred in manufacture and improve process. Since the R&D center is founded, more than 100 R&D projects were undertaken, some of them were funding supported by State, provincial or municipal government. In December 2007, the Science and Technology Bureau of Jiangxi Province has approved the proposal of constructing a provincial Engineering Research Center for Photovoltaic Technology; in October 2009, the Science and Technology Ministry of China has approved the proposal of constructing a National Engineering Research Center for Photovoltaic Technology.
                                  The technology center positively cooperate with leading domestic and foreign researches, do the scientific research with manpower and equipment resources of province, domestic and foreign universities, research institutes. The company has built strong relationship with universities and institutes by means of building Co-Lab or project cooperation, for example, Shanghai Jiaotong University and Nanchang University.

                                  Strategy
                                  • Taking "innovation and industrialization" as its guideline, and taking the domestic and foreign as main direction, LDK Solar establishes technological innovation system of the integration of production, study and research, explores a close combination of science and technology with the economy, strengthens the conversion from scientific and technological achievements into productive forces, promotes the industrialization of scientific and technological achievements.
                                  • LDK Solar focuses on R&D of basic technology and application technology throughout the whole industry chain, lay particular emphasis on the research application technology; the close combination of R&D with actual production, to solve the practical problems which occurred in the whole manufacturing process through the R&D and innovation of polysilicon, wafers and cells, it smashes all the factors which affect the conversion efficiency of cells separately, and accelerates the pace of large-scale popularization and application of mature technologies.
                                  • TLDK Solar tries its best to resolve technical difficulties and bottlenecks during its vertical integration, expands its production capacity according to market demand, improves production efficiency spares no efforts to reduce costs and further strengthens the cost leadership position of LDK Solar in the market.
                                  • LDK Solar actively cooperates with research institutions at home and abroad, tries its best to accelerate scientific and technological progress, develops the technology for photovoltaic industry in the future and further raises the technological position of LDK Solar in the photovoltaic industry. LDK Solar will take the advantages of its own technologies, resources and equipments to provide a comprehensive technical services and resource support for the photovoltaic research collaboration platform - PV strategic alliance which we work together with our partners.
                                  • LDK Solar actively promotes environmental protection, and enhances the development of cyclic economy. It emphasizes on source control and develops effective environmental protection measures during every production process, and takes pains to benefit the whole society and mankind, tries its best to turn the company into a well-deserved green company.
                                      • Achievements

                                      • Since the establishment of LDK Solar Technology Research Institute, it has undertaken more than sixty Governmental research projects; nine projects passed the science and technology achievement appraisal of Provincial Science and Technology Department; seven projects identified as world leading; two for the international advanced; fourteen projects honored as national, provincial and municipal science and technology awards; two new products won the title of provincial excellent key new products; formulated the national standards of three photovoltaic materials and one international standard; authored seventy-four patents.






                                        R & D project implementation:
                                        • Since the establishment of LDK Solar Technology Research Institute, it has undertaken sixty-three Governmental research projects; including one national 863 Plan Project and two national Torch Programs.
                                        • National 863 Plan Project, "Key technologies of resource recovery of wastes during photovoltaic material production process and demonstration".
                                        • National Torch Programs, "500 tons per year silicon powder recycling project of polysilicon block processing by-products."; "High-quality industrialization of solar wafers".
                                        • In addition, LDK Solar has undertaken enterprise internal R&D project of 308 items, currently completed 170 projects.
                                        • Led the effort of establishing several national standards for PV Products (such as “Standards for Solar Grade Polycrystalline Silicon Wafers”, “Standards for Solar Grade Polycrystalline Silicon Ingots and so on).
                                        • 61 Patents are under application, and 12 of them got granted.
                                        Projects passed the provincial achievement appraisal:
                                        • Of all the projects undertaken by LDK Solar, nine projects passed the science and technology achievement appraisal held by Jiangxi Science and Technology Department; seven projects identified as world leading; two for the international advanced.
                                        • Solar monocrystalline wafers
                                        • High-performance multicrystalline wafer M2
                                        • Production technology research and development of solar monocrystalline wafer
                                        • Production technology research and development of high-performance multicrystalline wafer M2
                                        • Production technology and equipment research of 100cm × 100cm polysilicon ingot
                                        • Recycling silicon from the polysilicon cutting waste slurry
                                        • Recovery of silicon power during silicon block processing.
                                        • Research on adding good-performance raw silicon block and its preparation method.
                                        • Preproduction of DSS furnace secondary feeding device.
                                        Honored as provincial outstanding key new products
                                        • The "solar wafers" and "solar Polysilicon Ingots" produced by LDK Solar was honored as Jiangxi outstanding key new products.